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The featured documents presented in chronological order in this page are chosen for their interest on the topic. They have been published by national or international institutions. It is recommended to refer to the documents published on the websites on these institutions.

[September 14, 2020] RELOCALISER EN FRANCE AVEC L’EUROPE, Yves Bertoncini, Fondation pour l’INNOVATION POLITIQUE (

Compétence exclusive de l’Union européenne, la politique commerciale doit également contribuer à dessiner le cadre juridique et politique dans lequel opèrent les investisseurs. C’est sur ce registre commercial que doivent être identifiés les outils communautaires, existants ou à créer, susceptibles de favoriser un mouvement de relocalisations, dans un contexte propice à l’affirmation des préférences collectives européennes. Afin de renforcer le retour ou l’installation d’activités productives sur son sol, la France doit donc concilier usage résolu des outils nationaux et mobilisation consensuelle des outils européens.

(translation) An exclusive competence of the European Union, trade policy must also help shape the legal and political framework in which investors operate. It is on this commercial register that the community tools, existing or to be created, that are likely to encourage a relocation movement, in a context conducive to the affirmation of European collective preferences, must be identified. In order to strengthen the return to or the installation of productive activities on its soil, France must therefore reconcile resolute use of national tools and consensual mobilization of European tools

[September 8, 2020] De la souveraineté industrielle aux relocalisations : de quoi parle-t-on ? Sonia Bellit, Caroline Granier et Caroline Mini, La Fabrique de l’industrie (

La fragmentation des chaînes de valeur peut ainsi créer des situations de dépendance : les catégories de biens « stratégiques » représenteraient aujourd’hui un cinquième des importations françaises. Il reste que la souveraineté s’apprécie dans un domaine, par rapport à un objectif, et dans un périmètre géographique spécifiques. Elle ne suppose pas l’autarcie… Les délocalisations stricto sensu restent un aspect assez marginal de ce flux asymétrique et ne sont pas aisément réversibles. En conséquence, les relocalisations ne seront pas un vecteur significatif de réindustrialisation du pays, mais l’industrie française peut trouver une voie de consolidation dans un mouvement de régionalisation qui semble engagé.

(translation) The fragmentation of value chains can thus create situations of dependence: “strategic” categories of goods currently represent one fifth of French imports. The fact remains that sovereignty is assessed in a domain, in relation to an objective, and in a specific geographical perimeter. It does not suppose autarky … Offshoring stricto sensu remains a rather marginal aspect of this asymmetric flow and is not easily reversible. As a result, relocations will not be a significant vector for the country’s reindustrialization, but French industry can find a way of consolidation in a regionalization movement that seems to be underway.

[September 1, 2020] RELOCALISER LA PRODUCTION APRÈS LA PANDÉMIE?, Paul-Adrien Hyppolite, Fondation pour l’INNOVATION POLITIQUE (

En règle générale, nous gagnerions surtout à porter l’effort non pas sur la « relocalisation » des industries d’hier mais sur la « localisation » de celles d’aujourd’hui et de demain. S’il existe un secteur dans lequel nous accusons un retard manifeste et sommes pris dans des relations de dépendance qui pourraient se révéler problématiques, il s’agit sans nul doute de celui des nouvelles technologies. Aussi la prise de conscience de la nécessité de créer davantage de valeur sur le territoire européen en investissant massivement dans les technologies numériques en formant et en attirant les talents en science et ingénierie informatiques est aujourd’hui fondamentale.

(translation) As a general rule, we would benefit above all from focusing not on the “relocation” of yesterday’s industries but on the “localization” of those of today and tomorrow. If there is one sector in which we are clearly lagging behind and caught in relationships of dependency that could prove to be problematic, it is undoubtedly that of new technologies. The awareness of the need to create more value on European territory by investing massively in digital technologies by training and attracting talents in computer science and engineering is therefore fundamental today.


In an unprecedented global health crisis, trade is essential to save lives and livelihoods; and international co-operation is needed to keep trade flowing. In the midst of significant uncertainty, there are four things we can do: 1)boost confidence in trade and global markets by improving transparency about trade-related policy actions and intentions; 2)keep supply chains flowing, especially for essentials such as health supplies and food; 3)avoid making things worse, through unnecessary export restrictions and other trade barriers; and 4)even in the midst of the crisis, think beyond the immediate. Government support today needs to be delivered in a way that ensures it serves the public interest, not vested interests, and avoids becoming tomorrow’s market distortions. OECD is working with other IOs to support governments through timely and objective evidence and analysis to inform policy choices.

[2020] World trade: despite a sudden interruption, global value chains still have a bright future By Julien Marcilly - Chief Economist Mélina London - Junior Economist and Matthew Fontes-Baptista - Junior Economist, based in Paris, France. COFACE ECONOMIC PUBLICATIONS

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, global trade has been dragged down by numerous factors: a global recession, skyrocketing uncertainty, restriction and rising cost of transport and localized protectionism targeting supply of food and critical medical wares. On the bright side, tight border controls have had a limited impact on trade and are being eased gradually in Europe, in order to revive the tourism industry and limit labour shortages in the agricultural sector. In the longer-term, multiple calls to relocate production domestically also constitute risks to the future of global trade. Nevertheless, shielding production from foreign supply shocks seems like an impossible quest: to imagine a full relocation of manufacturing processes at the domestic or regional level highlights issues of rising production costs and lack of domestic skills. Even if these two issues are addressed, this new local production process will still be dependent on raw material supply, which is highly location-dependent. Mitigating the exposure to one specific country by diversifying suppliers is also a tricky challenge. At first glance, finding alternatives to the top supplier country (i.e. China in most sectors) is possible. However, major input producers are also strongly connected to one another, which means that the exposure will not disappear even when input supply to other major hubs in the sector is diversified. Overall, the good news is that global value chains still have a bright future.

[2020] Purchasing Power Parities and the Size of World Economies. Results from the 2017 International Comparison Program Washington, World Bank

In 2017, the United States and China were the two largest economies in the world and together accounted for a third of the global economy. India, the third largest economy, accounted for around 7 percent of global gross domestic product (GDP). The global economy, when measured using purchasing power parities (PPPs) rather than market exchange rates, is split more or less equally between high-income and middle-income economies, with low-income economies contributing just 1 percent of global GDP. The United States remained the economy with the highest level of per capita consumption, at nearly US$45,000 in PPP terms, more than four times the world average. Cross-country inequality persisted, with around three-quarters of the world’s population living in economies where the mean per capita income and con- sumption were below their respective global averages of US$16,596 and US$10,858.

[2019] The future of Asia. Asian flows and networks are defining the next phase of globalization. Discussion paperOliver Tonby, Jonathan Woetzel, Wonsik Choi, Karel Eloot ,Rajat Dhawan ,Jeongmin Seong ,Patti Wang. McKinsey Global Institute

In this paper, we build on the January 2019 McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) report Globalization in transition: The future of trade and value chains by examining Asia’s rise on eight dimensions incorporating 16 types of flow, looking at the increasing integration of the economies of the region, and highlighting the development of three powerful new Asian networks: industrialization, innovation, and culture and mobility, and the rising cities that are pivotal components of those networks. This paper is one of a series on the future of Asia, prepared in collaboration with the Asia offices of McKinsey & Company, which will all be available at

[2019] Participation and benefits of SMEs in GVCs in Southeast Asia. OECD Trade Policy Papers, Paris, OECD Publishing, No. 231,

This paper uses detailed firm level data from Southeast Asian countries to split the OECD Trade in Value Added database and map how SMEs have been participating in GVCs. It then identifies the benefits associated with this participation and looks into the policy levers that can help make GVC participation in the region more inclusive. It suggest that policy makers focus on: i) reducing trade costs that hit SMEs hardest; including tariffs, trade agreements and trade facilitation; ii) creating an enabling environment to promote domestic linkages so that SMEs can create partnerships with larger firms and multinationals to export indirectly; and iii) reducing non-tariff measures that are especially onerous for SMEs through wider ASEAN regulatory harmonisation and adopting more flexible rules of origin.

[2019] GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2019. Creating Healthy Lives—The Future of Medical Innovation. 12th Edition, Soumitra Dutta, Bruno Lanvin, and Sacha Wunsch-Vincent Editors. Ithaca, Fontainebleau, and Geneva: Cornell University, INSEAD, and WIPO

The time has come for the healthcare sector—governments, businesses, researchers, and patients—to leverage the tremendous power of the virtual world. Virtual environments are pushing the bounds of possibility to transform research, science, the pharmaceutical industry, and medicine. These virtual environments will also empower the workforce of the future with knowledge and know-how, while eliminating the gap between experimentation and learning—both globally and locally. Virtual worlds are revolutionizing our relationship with knowledge, just as the printing press did in the 15th century. The new book is the virtual experience.

[2013] World Investment Report 2013: Global Value Chains: Investment and Trade for Development, NewYork and Geneva, United Nations

In 2012 – for the first time ever – developing economies absorbed more FDI than developed countries, with four developing economies ranked among the five largest recipients in the world. Developing countries also generated almost one third of global FDI outflows, continuing an upward trend that looks set to continue. This year’s World Investment Report provides an in-depth analysis, strategic development options and practical advice for policymakers and others on how to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks associated with global value chains. This is essential to ensure more inclusive growth and sustainable development.


Multinational firms are not the only firms to benefit from internationalisation. Numerous studies have documented that any internationally engaged firms, e.g. through exporting or importing and/or having affiliates abroad, tend to have higher productivity. Exports and direct investment abroad may provide useful feedback to firms which can help them to improve productivity. Offshoring is one specific form of global engagement and is also found to have positive effects on firm productivity.